Rush to Judgement-7/11Editor: The country hasn't been this racially divided since the 60's. The blame falls squarely on the shoulders of Obama, Holder and the mainstream media. I can't remember when the DoJ was this politicized. They rushed to judgement in the Trevon Martin case. Ferguson was a complete disaster. Obama blamed the cop before the facts were in. They took the word of Michael Brown's buddy who helped hold up the mini-mart before Brown attacked the cop in the car. Black witnesses countered the claim that Brown had his hands up and said "Don't shoot." The police took too long in setting the record straight. None of this mattered to Obama, Holder and the press. Hence the motto Black Lives Matter was founded on, is a lie. "Hands Up, Don't Shoot" is a false narrative. As leader of the Nation, Obama set the tone. The Baltimore black mayor and black distrrict attorney threw professionalism and justice to the wind and over-reached their duties. They arrested too many cops in their misguided zealousness. Several have since been proven innocent in the courts. The damage was already done however with their inflammatory remarks and actions. Black anger has been simmering below the surface fueled by so-called black leaders. Then comes the recent shootings in Baton Rouge and the Twin Cites which do seem to be terrible mistakes. Both victims apparently had guns hidden somewhere. This exascerbated the situation. FYI: When you tell a cop you have a gun. Do what he says. Do not go for identification. Fearful cops might have made the wrong decision. The problem is these things happened on top of the previous incidents that just weren't true. But then, Obama, Holder, the press and now apparently Lynch, have an agenda, the truth doesn't matter. Instead Black Lives Matter or maybe, is it Black Lies Matter?
Demon Directories: On Listing and Living with Tibetan Worldly Spirits-6/24 Perfumed Skull, (An image of a blue the’u rang or tebrang spirit from a Tibetan manuscript. Scanned images from this manuscript of many Tibetan worldly spirits described in the post that follows can be found here at himalayanart.org but unfortunately the name and date of the source-text is not given. If anyone knows these details, please do let me know!)
I came across the following condensed directory of worldly spirits, gods, demons and other non-human Tibetan persons that go bump in the night in a book of essays which deal with the history and controversies surrounding the Tibetan protector-spirit Dolgyal, which I briefly discussed here. The book, whose short title is ‘The Impurity-Dispelling Mirror – An Investigation into the Origination and Controversy of Dolgyal’ was compiled by the Office of the Central Executive Committee of Dhomay (Amdo) Province in exile. The Committee spent some four odd years conducting research into the contentious spirit’s origins and nature and has penned a series of excellent essays explaining the role of spirit-protectors in Tibetan Buddhism and the development of the controversial sectarian issues associated with this spirit in particular. The essays in the book provide much needed context for a very complex issue, part of which revolves around divided opinions on the theological status of the spirit in question. Supporters of the spirit claim that it is a legitimate protector that is upholding its vows and deserving of propitiation; whereas His Holiness the Dalai Lama and numerous other authorities consider the being to be a harmful and demonic presence, a difficult to control hyper-zealous (and hyper-sectarian) force of violence and evil that should be avoided altogether.
The chapter which I have translated below provides a general overview of ‘worldly’ (unenlightened) spirits which feature prominently in Tibetan cosmologies and everyday lives. Worldly spirits are powerful and can thus prove both helpful and harmful. Despite their abilities or knowledge they have not achieved Buddhahood and should therefore not be relied upon like with Buddha-beings as a source of refuge, as guides on the path to liberation or salvation. Worldly protector gods and spirits which have been tamed and made to swear oaths of service to the Dharma by accomplished tantric masters operate instead like friends (and enemies) in high (and low) places, and there exist a whole range of ritual technologies designed to enlist their aid and thwart their dangers. Here’s the list (time-pressed readers, feel free to skip to the bottom and just refer back to it instead as you read through my thoughts on it below): “A Brief Introduction to some different kinds of Gods and Spirits Lha or ‘Gods’: this word is used for those beings who have entered into a state of love (kindness or mercy) or bliss. Such beings, who revel in pleasure and bliss, are called lha. They are a class of non-human being that possesses great merit, rejoices in the dharma and has the capacity to experience (every manner of sensuous) enjoyment as they please. At the same time, in the commentaries on nomenclature in the ‘100, 000 accounts’ (gleng ‘bum) of the Vinaya [the scriptures on monastic conduct] the term lha is also used as a designation for worldly deities – so-called rgyal po or ‘kings’; for the Great Kings of the four abodes (i.e. or cardinal directions), and so on, who are the gods of ordinary people, and for noble persons, who are the gods of the wholly pure. ... Lha min (non-gods) or ‘Demi-gods’/’Titans’: (These beings) mostly just compete with the wealthy and prosperous gods. Previously, they grew accustomed to the non-virtues of envy and quarrelling and by means of that karma they were propelled into taking up their (current) bodily form or incarnation. From about this point (governed by) the coarse conception of envy, they have fought in factions in their own abodes, and not being in accord with the gods, their sole past-time is to fight against them. According to the Abhidharmakosha the demi-gods live in a crevice below the shoreline of Mount Meru. ... More
A Revolutionary Discovery in China-4/11 The New York Times Review of Books, Ian Johnson April 21, 2016 Issue, Buried Ideas: Legends of Abdication and Ideal Government in Early Chinese Bamboo-Slip Manuscripts by Sarah Allan State University of New York Press, 372 pp., $95.00
As Beijing prepared to host the 2008 Olympics, a small drama was unfolding in Hong Kong. Two years earlier, middlemen had come into possession of a batch of waterlogged manuscripts that had been unearthed by tomb robbers in south-central China. The documents had been smuggled to Hong Kong and were lying in a vault, waiting for a buyer. Universities and museums around the Chinese world were interested but reluctant to buy. The documents were written on hundreds of strips of bamboo, about the size of chopsticks, that seemed to date from 2,500 years ago, a time of intense intellectual ferment that gave rise to Chinaâ€™s greatest schools of thought. But their authenticity was in doubt, as were the ethics of buying looted goods. Then, in July, an anonymous graduate of Tsinghua University stepped in, bought the soggy stack, and shipped it back to his alma mater in Beijing. University administrators acted boldly. They appointed Chinaâ€™s most famous historian, seventy-five-year-old Li Xueqin, to head a team of experts to study the strips. On July 17, the researchers gingerly placed the slips in enamel basins filled with water, hoping to duplicate the environment that had allowed the fibrous material to survive so long. ...
July Astrology-7/1 Richard Nolle, July continues two major themes from June: an intensified Mars Max, and an unrelenting Saturn-Neptune square. In that sense, this month is cut from the same cloth as last: full of murder and mayhem, “fires, crashes, clashes and explosions” (the Mars Max component), and socio-political-economic disintegration and deception (the Saturn-Neptune square). Into the mix there are some geophysical shock windows, harbingers of storms solar, seismic and atmospheric. Time being of the essence – the last several weeks have been very busy here – here’s the nub of it.
Mars remains within a degree of its June 29 direct station all the way into mid-July, with an emphatic kicker tacked on by the Moon-Mars alignment on the 14th. The Mars Max as a whole continues in force into September, but the first half of July marks the end of the last major turbulence associated with this cycle. Anger, haste, recklessness and belligerence are the keynotes of this cycle, so be careful out there. Dangers range from accidental mishaps to criminal misdeeds to terrorist atrocities. Most of us will only experience these things secondhand, via the news. That’s plenty bad enough. You’ll know it when you see it: a rash of murders and mass murders, a clutch of big fires, crashes and explosions . . . the all too familiar same old same old. Thank heaven it’s nearing an end now. Be especially vigilant around the 14th (when the Moon aligns with Mars and Saturn) and the 29th (Mercury squares Mars and Uranus stations retrograde).
The Saturn-Neptune square of June 18 came within days of the UK’s vote to leave the EU – as delusional a faux pas as could ever be imagined. As I said, this is still in effect into October, so there’s more of the same coming and a lot of fallout from the Brexit fiasco as well – including more delusional talk of a do-over by the Brits. That’s not to say that Parliament can’t undo the will of the people – far more likely than a revote. Beyond the consequences for Britain, the turbulence in the world’s currency and equity markets will continue unabated until September. Not a rocket ride to the bottom mind you. But a sputtering foundering along a sub-par path.
There are a couple of notable geophysical storm windows this month, times when riptides run through Earth’s crust, seas and skies, giving rise to a spate of powerful storms with high winds and heavy precipitation, moderate to severe seismic activity (M5+ earthquakes, and notable volcanic eruptions). Expect these to show their hand July 1-7 and 16-22, associated with the July 4 and 19 new and full moon, respectively. Also be aware of the heightened potential for solar storms around July 18-24, as the solar disk rotates to aim the point of Mercury’s July 7 superior conjunction with the Sun right at us. Expect strong X-Ray storms (M and X-class) to fire off, along with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). These in turn will raise the level of geomagnetic activity here on Earth (Kp 5 and up storms). On the plus side, a bevy of beautiful auroral displays may be expected; but also, disturbances in electrical and electronic systems, power grids, computers and computer networks, telecommunications, etc. Vulnerable human neural networks will also be subject to going on the fritz. end
The Voynich Manuscript-6/24 Yale University Press, Edited by Raymond Clemens; With an Introduction by Deborah Harkness
Many call the fifteenth-century codex, commonly known as the “Voynich Manuscript,” the world’s most mysterious book. Written in an unknown script by an unknown author, the manuscript has no clearer purpose now than when it was rediscovered in 1912 by rare books dealer Wilfrid Voynich. The manuscript appears and disappears throughout history, from the library of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II to a secret sale of books in 1903 by the Society of Jesus in Rome. The book’s language has eluded decipherment, and its elaborate illustrations remain as baffling as they are beautiful. For the first time, this facsimile, complete with elaborate folding sections, allows readers to explore this enigma in all its stunning detail, from its one-of-a-kind “Voynichese” text to its illustrations of otherworldly plants, unfamiliar constellations, and naked women swimming though fantastical tubes and green baths.
The essays that accompany the manuscript explain what we have learned about this work—from alchemical, cryptographic, forensic, and historical perspectives—but they provide few definitive answers. Instead, as New York Times best-selling author Deborah Harkness says in her introduction, the book “invites the reader to join us at the heart of the mystery.”
Greta Garbo Statue of Integrity-7/14 Atlas Obscura, Just like the renowned recluse would have wanted, this statue is all alone, deep in a Swedish forest. ... The reason I posted this is because I've only come across one person with the same sun, moon and ascendant sign as myself. It's the famous recluse Greta Garbo.
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Shakespeare at 400, Jack London at 100: Genius Lives-6/29 Huffington Post, by Jonah Raskin -- In William Shakespeare’s comedy, “As You Like It, a traveler named Jaques waxes poetical in lines that have achieved literary immortality. “All the world’s a stage,” he says. “And all the men and women merely players;/ They have their exits and their entrances,/And one man in his time plays many parts.” Three hundred years later, Jack London, another melancholy traveler, might well have spoken nearly the same lines and meant them to be about himself. Indeed, he once observed that he had half-a-dozen different “selves” and proved it in a short, brilliant life that spanned the end of the nineteenth and the start of twentieth century. A writer, vagabond, sailor, farmer, public speaker, playwright, playboy, war correspondent, and a Bernie Sanders-like socialist, Jack London was born John Griffith Chaney in San Francisco in 1876. He died in Glen Ellen, California in 1916 at the age of 40. (London ran for mayor of Oakland twice and twice lost.) Around the world this year, theatergoers and thespians, are celebrating the 400th anniversary of the death of Shakespeare in 1616, his age unknown. There’s another big literary anniversary afoot, as well. In 2016, fans of Jack London, one of the most popular American authors of his day, are celebrating the 100th anniversary of his death. Both anniversaries are well worth celebrating. Indeed, if Shakespeare’s plays illuminate the Elizabethan Age better than the plays of any other writer, Jack London’s novels, including “The Iron Heel,” illuminate the Gilded Age and its aftermath better than most of the novels of his contemporaries, including those of Henry James. To many, it will sound like hyperbole, but to the faithful London was the Shakespeare of his day. Like the Bard, he wrote tragedies as well as comedies. Like the Bard, he was exceedingly prolific; in 17 years be wrote more than 50 books. Like Shakespeare, he created immortal character: Buck, the dog who devolves into a wolf; White Fang, the wolf who evolves into a dog; Wolf Larsen, the brutal sea captain who reads Shakespeare and analyzes his most famous character, Hamlet. There’s also Martin Eden, the sailor who becomes a famous writer. And perhaps London’s best character of all: himself. As the literary critic, Alfred Kazin famously observed, “the greatest story Jack London ever wrote was the story he lived.” For one hundred years, biographers have tried repeatedly to capture his elusive identity and to fix the nature of his nature as well as the nature of his art. Dozens and dozens of biographies have been written about him, including “The Mystery of Jack London” by his friend Georgia Loring Bamford. ...
The Mysteries and Myths of Jack London-6/29 Valley of the Moon Mag., January 26, 2016, Vol. 2 Issue 1; It is hard to imagine another twentieth-century writer who engenders as much myth, mystery and mystique as Jack London. And if you live in the Valley of the Moon, he is not only a literary monument, he is our literary monument, even as—by anecdotal estimate more than researched fact—a substantial percentage of our Valley’s population doesn’t know him, can’t place him, can’t name a single one of his books. There may not be another American writer about whom, simultaneously, so much and so little is known. He was a man so full of contradictions that virtually every line of inquiry into his life, his literature, his loves and his legacy leads in both the right and the wrong direction. Any inventory of his works, his passions, his women, his adventures and his prodigious output could fill pages. But the list should at least include the following:
He was, reportedly, the first American writer to earn a million dollars.
He wrote 50 books and uncountable numbers of articles, short stories and essays and has been translated into 70 languages. Several of his books have never gone out of print.
He was a bona fide adventurer and a very capable sailor, who taught himself celestial navigation from a book on board his custom-made ketch, the Snark, on his way to Hawaii.
He was a political radical, a socialist firebrand who championed the working class from which he came, while living a life of relative luxury and privilege. There is great irony that a plaque commemorating London’s birthplace in San Francisco is now affixed to a Wells Fargo bank building at 3rd Street and Brannan. And Mark Twain, the writer to whom London was most often compared, dismissed Jack’s socialism with the remark, “It would serve this man London right to have the working class get control of things. He would have to call out the militia to collect his royalties.”
Jack London was a true pioneer when it came to farming, experimenting with sustainable practices that drew derision from local farmers but proved visionary in hindsight. He was also dedicated to animal rights and became a vocal critic of the abuse heaped on circus animals.
He was an accomplished photojournalist, taking some 12,000 photos from his coverage of the Russo-Japanese War, the slums of London’s East End, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and his Pacific voyages aboard the Snark.
He was almost certainly born out of wedlock, his probable birth father denied paternity and he was partially raised by a black, former-slave wet nurse who not only sustained him as an infant, but who loaned him $300 to buy a sailboat so he could, at the age of 16, become an oyster pirate on San Francisco Bay.
He had only an eighth-grade education and for much of his life he struggled with a sense of social inferiority. And yet he was handsome, bold and charming and was repeatedly infatuated with women, who flocked around him. He had affairs during his first marriage, and probably during his second to Charmian Kittredge, with whom he was deeply in love. He is now considered an early feminist, in part because he admired strong, independent women.
He was, by modern standards, a white supremacist, if not a racist, who publicly extolled the superiority of the white race and shared the prevailing contempt for Japanese immigrants, using the term “yellow peril” as the title of a 1904 essay.
And yet, he wrote a story in 1910, called “The Unparalleled Invasion,” that described a far future time—set between 1976 and 1987, in which China with its enormous population starts taking over the world. In response, nations of the West retaliate with biological warfare and dozens of infectious diseases. But in the face of this fictional scenario, London also wrote that despite a hypothetical threat from China, “It must be taken into consideration that the above postulate is itself a product of Western race-egotism, urged by our belief in our own righteousness and fostered by a faith in ourselves which may be as erroneous as are most fond race fancies.”
That said, he also lionized a Hawaiian leper as “a magnificent rebel,” and when he covered the heavyweight championship fight between black boxer Jack Johnson and Jim Jeffries, known as the Great White Hope,” London wrote that what won the fight “was bigness, coolness, quickness, cleverness, and vast physical superiority … Because a white man wishes a white man to win, this should not prevent him from giving absolute credit to the best man, even when that best man was black. All hail to Johnson.”
More paradox and contradiction.
The quality of London’s literature is still endlessly debated. Jack is widely quoted as having said, “You can’t wait for inspiration. You have to go after it with a club.” And, indeed, there is at times a club-like quality to his prose, as if he were just pounding it out to generate another royalty check.
He himself admitted that writing had ultimately become simply a means to buy more land and improve the quality and size of Beauty Ranch. ...
Our Lady of Fatima, 1917-2017 – Why 100 Years Matters-7/1romancatholicman.com, by Fr. Richard Heilman,
Pope St. Leo XIII’s Vision:
According to legend, exactly 33 years (span of our Lord’s life) to the day prior to the great Miracle of the Sun in Fatima, that is, on October 13, 1884, Pope Leo XIII had a remarkable vision. When the aged Pontiff had finished celebrating Mass in his private Vatican Chapel, attended by a few Cardinals and members of the Vatican staff, he suddenly stopped at the foot of the altar. He stood there for about 10 minutes, as if in a trance, his face ashen white. Then, going immediately from the Chapel to his office, he composed the prayer to St. Michael, with instructions it be said after all Low Masses everywhere. When asked what had happened, he explained that, as he was about to leave the foot of the altar, he suddenly heard voices – two voices, one kind and gentle, the other guttural and harsh. They seemed to come from near the tabernacle. As he listened, he heard the following conversation:
The guttural voice, the voice of Satan in his pride, boasted to Our Lord: “I can destroy your Church.”
The gentle voice of Our Lord: “You can? Then go ahead and do so.”
Satan: “To do so, I need more time and more power.”
Our Lord: “How much time? How much power?”
Satan: “75 to 100 years, and a greater power over those who will give themselves over to my service.”
Our Lord: “You have the time, you will have the power. Do with them what you will.”
33 Years Later
On Sunday May 13th, 1917, the children were pasturing their flock as usual at the Cova da Iria, which was about a mile from their homes. They were playing when suddenly a bright shaft of light pierced the air. The lady spoke to them and said: “Fear not! I will not harm you.” “Where are you from?” the children asked. “I am from heaven” the beautiful lady replied, gently raising her hand towards the distant horizon. “What do you want of me?”, Lucia asked. ” I came to ask you to come here for six consecutive months, on the thirteenth day, at this same hour. I will tell you later who I am and what I want.” It was Mary’s final appearance, on Oct. 13, 1917 (exactly 33 years, to the day, after Pope Leo XIII’s vision), that became the most famous. An estimated 70,000 people were in attendance at the site, anticipating the Virgin’s final visit and with many fully expecting that she would work a great miracle. As everyone gazed upward, and saw that a silvery disc had emerged from behind clouds, they experienced what is known [as] a ‘sun miracle.’ Not everyone reported the same thing; some present claimed they saw the sun dance around the heavens; others said the sun zoomed toward Earth in a zigzag motion that caused them to fear that it might collide with our planet (or, more likely, burn it up). Some people reported seeing brilliant colors spin out of the sun in a psychedelic, pinwheel pattern. The whole event took about 10 minutes. With these apparitions at Fatima, God asked for the Consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary by the Pope in union with all of the bishops of the world. Our Lady of Fatima said that if the Consecration of Russia was done, Russia would be converted and there would be peace. However, if the Pope and the bishops did not obey the request, Our Lady said that Russia would spread her errors throughout the world, causing wars and persecutions of the Church and of Holy Father, the martyrdom of the good and the annihilation of nations. ...
Saint Michael, the Archangel, defend us in the day of battle; be our protection against the wickedness and snares of the devil. May God rebuke him, we humbly pray, and do thou, O prince of the heavenly host, by the power of God, thrust into hell, satan and all the other evil spirits, who roam through the world, seeking the ruin of souls. Amen.
If you build it, will they come? Huge $100m life-size Noah's Ark (complete with baby dinosaurs aboard) prepares to open as Kentucky’s newest tourist attraction-6/28 Daily Mail,
• Full-sized wooden replica of the ship is to the become the main attraction at a US amusement park to open in July
• Inside the ark will be several exhibits featuring Noah and his family, along with information about the Holy Bible
• Realistic models of around 30 pairs of animals - including two juvenile T-Rex - will also be on the ship
• The huge structure, which will be the largest timber-framed building in the world, is costing more than $100million
• Ken Ham, who came up with the idea, wants the ark to be the focal point for an amusement park in Kentucky
• Devout Christian, from Australia, hopes ark and story of Noah will warn people not to pursue modern 'evils'... Editor: Noah's great, grand daddy was Enoch. They liked to call a little place in the Atlantic called Atlantis, home.
The Lost Tomb of King Arthur-4/11 Graham Phillips identifies a historical figure behind the legend of King Arthur, and searches for his capital city and his long-lost tomb.-- The story of King Arthur is known throughout the world. The fabled Camelot, Sir Bedivere casting Excalibur into the lake and Arthurâ€™s secret burial at the isle of Avalon: these are just a few of the enchanting themes in the ancient saga that historians have long considered to be pure fantasy. Now, in The Lost Tomb of King Arthur, Graham Phillips presents compelling evidence that such legends were actually based on real events. During a quest lasting over twenty-five years, he has followed a fascinating trail of historical clues showing Arthur to have been a living warrior who led the Britons around the year 500. He has discovered that the legendary Camelot, Excalibur and Avalon were based on a real city, a real sword and a real island. And, most astonishing of all, Graham has found what he claims to be the location where Arthur was finally buried. An ancient manuscript still persevered at Oxford University, Graham believes, reveals the whereabouts of King Arthurâ€™s long-lost tomb.
Hidden secrets of Yaleâ€™s 1491 world map revealed via multispectral imaging-9/9 Yale News, By Mike Cummings -- Henricus Martellus, a German cartographer working in Florence in the late 15th century, produced a highly detailed map of the known world. According to experts, there is strong evidence that Christopher Columbus studied this map and that it influenced his thinking before his fateful voyage. ...
War and Peace in the Bhagavad Gita-7/1 NY Review of Books, by Wendy Doniger; December 4, 2014 Issue
The Bhagavad Gita: A Biography
by Richard H. Davis
Princeton University Press, 243 pp., $24.95
How did Indian tradition transform the Bhagavad Gita (the “Song of God”) into a bible for pacifism, when it began life, sometime between the third century BC and the third century CE, as an epic argument persuading a warrior to engage in a battle, indeed, a particularly brutal, lawless, internecine war? It has taken a true gift for magic—or, if you prefer, religion, particularly the sort of religion in the thrall of politics that has inspired Hindu nationalism from the time of the British Raj to Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi today.
The Gita (as it is generally known to its friends) occupies eighteen chapters of book 6 of the Mahabharata, an immense (over 100,000 couplets) Sanskrit epic. The text is in the form of a conversation between the warrior Arjuna, who, on the eve of an apocalyptic battle, hesitates to kill his friends and family on the other side, and the incarnate god Krishna, who acts as Arjuna’s charioteer (a low-status job roughly equivalent to a bodyguard) and persuades him to do it.
In his masterful new biography of the Gita—part of an excellent Princeton series dedicated to the lives of great religious books—Richard Davis, a professor of religion at Bard College, shows us, in subtle and stunning detail, how the text of the Gita has been embedded in one political setting after another, changing its meaning again and again over the centuries. For what the Gita was in its many pasts is very different from what it is today: the best known of all the philosophical and religious texts of Hinduism.
The Gita incorporates into its seven hundred verses many different sorts of insights, which people use to argue many different, often contradictory, ideas. We might divide them into two broad groups: what I would call the warrior’s Gita, about engaging in the world, and the philosopher’s Gita, about disengaging. The Gita’s theology—the god’s transfiguration of the warrior’s life—binds the two points of view in an uneasy tension that has persisted through the centuries.
The Gita’s philosophy is basically a compendium of the prevalent philosophical theories of the time, a kind of Cliff’s Notes for Indian Philosophy 101. Drawing upon the Upanishads, mystical Sanskrit texts from as early as the fifth century BC, the Gita tells of the immortal, transmigrating soul, and the brahman, or godhead, that pervades the universe and is identical with the individual soul. But the Gita also introduces two strikingly original new ideas that were to have a deep impact on the subsequent history of Hinduism. First, it offers a corrective to the older belief that the transmigrating soul is stained by a force called karma, consisting of the residues of actions committed within the past life and influencing the subsequent life. The Gita qualifies this belief by asserting that action without desire for the fruits of action (nishkama karma) leaves the soul unstained by such karmic residues.
The other, related idea is that the path of devotion (bhakti) to a god is superior to the paths of action (karma yoga) and meditation (jnana yoga) that had produced a tension between householders (or warriors), engaged on the path of action, and renouncers (or philosophers), on the path of meditation, disengaged from action. Bhakti was a new way to reconcile them. ...